The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has updated its recommended immunization schedules for children and adolescents, including separate schedules for children aged 0 through 6 years, aged 7 through 18 years, and a catch-up schedule for children with late or incomplete immunizations. Major changes have been made in recommendations for 3 vaccines: human papillomavirus (HPV), meningococcal, and influenza.
Routine use of the HPV vaccine is now recommended for boys as well as girls. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV4) should be given to all boys aged 11 or 12 years in a 3-dose series. For girls, either the quadrivalent or the bivalent vaccine can be used.
For boys and girls, the vaccine series can be started as early as 9 years. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently updated its recommendations to include routine use of HPV4 for boys aged 11 to 12 years.
Meningococcal vaccine can now be given to children as young as 9 months if they live in or travel to countries with epidemic disease or are at increased risk of developing meningococcal disease. Routine immunization with the meningococcal vaccine should begin at 11 through 12 years, with a booster dose at 16 years.
The updated schedules clarify influenza vaccine dosing for children aged 6 months through 8 years. The vaccine should be administered in 2 doses for those who did not receive at least 1 dose of the vaccine in 2010-2011. Children who received 1 dose last season require 1 dose for the 2011-2012 influenza season.
Detailed recommendations on individual vaccines, including recommendations for children with high-risk conditions, can be found on the CDC Web site (
Committee on Infectious Diseases. Recommended childhood and adolescent immunization schedules—United States, 2012. Pediatrics. 2012;129(2):385-386