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Josephine Ho, MD



Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents: Part 1, Overview and Diagnosis

February 12, 2010

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the most common type of diabetes encountered in children. The incidence of T1DM in children is increasing in some populations. Early recognition of symptoms of T1DM is critical to avoid life-threatening metabolic decompensation. Such symptoms can include polyuria, polydipsia, fatigue, weight loss, urinary tract infection, vaginal candidiasis, and “fruity” breath. In the presence of clinical symptoms of hyperglycemia, diagnosis requires just 1 laboratory blood glucose measurement above the established threshold for the child’s age. In the absence of typical symptoms, a second abnormal blood glucose measurement on a different day is needed.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents: Part 2, Management

February 12, 2010

Although at present there is no cure for type 1 diabetes mellitus, good treatments are available that can enable affected children to lead healthy, active lives. Insulin regimens should be designed to optimize metabolic control while minimizing the risk of adverse events, such as hypoglycemic episodes, which can be more serious in children. Regimens of 3 in- jections per day work well for children who cannot receive an injection at lunchtime, while multiple daily injection (MDI) regimens provide more flexibility. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) can provide better quality of life than MDI regimens, but CSII requires a high level of motivation and carries its own risks. In all children, insulin regimens must be adjusted to accommodate the physiological changes of growth and development. Long-term follow-up is important to monitor for complications of diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children:A New Challenge for Diagnosis and Prevention

February 01, 2006

Key words: type 2 diabetes melllitus, childhood obesity