Author | Sharmila Nanda, MD

Articles

Boy With Extraordinarily High Blood Lead Levels

April 01, 2008

A 9-year-old asymptomatic boy was referred to our tertiary care facility with a blood lead level (BLL) of 59 ?g/dL. A diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which was managed with amphetamine/dextroamphetamine, had been made when the patient was 6 years old.

Cerebral Palsy: A Multisystem Review

June 01, 2007

ABSTRACT: Most cases of cerebral palsy (CP) are the result of congenital, genetic, inflammatory, anoxic, traumatic, toxic, and metabolic disorders. A minority of cases result from asphyxia at birth. Nearly three-quarters of children with CP aged 7 years had a normal neurological evaluation at birth. Abnormal motor development usually provides the first diagnostic clue. Neuroimaging is recommended if the cause of CP has not been established with perinatal imaging. MRI is preferred to CT. Management of the multisystemic manifestations begins with a comprehensive medical evaluation by a multidisciplinary team that includes family members. Therapy is aimed at maximizing the patient's level of function. Key areas include ambulation, cognitive skills, activities of daily living, hygiene, and rehabilitation into society.

Cold Injuries: A Guide to Preventing--and Treating--Hypothermia and Frostbite

October 01, 2005

ABSTRACT: Hypothermia is not limited to the northern states: people also die of hypothermia in other areas with milder climates. Infants, young adolescent boys, and inadequately dressed teens who abuse alcohol or illicit drugs are at highest risk for death secondary to hypothermia. The mildly hypothermic patient may appear fatigued and display persistent shivering, ataxia, clumsiness, confusion, tachypnea, and tachycardia. The child with moderate hypothermia will not be shivering; declining mental status may cause the freezing patient to remove clothing. An irregular heartbeat is likely at this stage. Severe hypothermia is marked by apnea, stupor, and coma. In a frostbitten patient, rapid rewarming of the affected area in warm water for 15 to 30 minutes is the first step. Potent analgesia is often necessary. After thawing, the frostbitten part is kept dry, warm, and loosely covered. With an adequate dose of common sense, the vast majority of deaths from cold injury can be prevented.