Newborn With Urinary DysfunctionMarch 7th 2011
During circumcision, a newborn is noted to have continuous dribbling of urine from his meatus and stool from his anus. After several minutes of observation, the urinary stream appears weak and remains a constant trickle. The baby boy was born at term via an uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery.
Abdominal Mass in Teenage Girl: Hair's the DiagnosisFebruary 8th 2011
A 14-year-old girl had fatigue, a slight sore throat, and low-grade fever for a week. The mother was concerned that she had “mono” like her older sister who had the same symptoms and in whom the illness was diagnosed 2 months earlier.
A 13-year-old girl presented to her primary care pediatrician for continuing evaluation of intermittent right lower quadrant and right hip pain of 7 months' duration. As part of the workup, a pediatric orthopedist had ordered an MRI scan of her pelvis. The findings were normal except for the presence of multiple ovarian follicles bilaterally (Figures 1 and 2).
Strabismus: What to Tell Parents and When to Consider SurgeryJune 1st 2008
Alignment. Accommodative esotropia is treated initially with glasses. The glasses may not improve visual acuity. They are used so the child does not have to make the accommodative effort; the eyes may not "turn in" and the child can use the eyes together, binocularly. If the eyes are aligned with spectacle correction, surgery may never be required. However, if the eyes are not aligned with glasses and/or bifocals, or if the child cannot be weaned from bifocals as he or she grows, then surgery may be indicated. We all lose our ability to accommodate for near tasks as time goes by-the loss of accommodative effort over time is of benefit to children with accommodative esotropia, because they may outgrow the need for glasses and avoid muscle surgery.
Boy With Extraordinarily High Blood Lead LevelsApril 1st 2008
A 9-year-old asymptomatic boy was referred to our tertiary care facility with a blood lead level (BLL) of 59 ?g/dL. A diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which was managed with amphetamine/dextroamphetamine, had been made when the patient was 6 years old.
Routine screening for eye disease at all well-child visits should begin in the newborn period. Prompt ophthalmological referral of patients with strabismus or any suspected eye disease is essential to determine the underlying cause, optimize treatment, and preserve binocular vision
ABSTRACT: Routine screening for eye disease at all well-child visits should begin in the newborn period. Prompt ophthalmological referral of patients with strabismus or any suspected eye disease is essential to determine the underlying cause, optimize treatment, and preserve binocular vision.
Middle School: A Time for Maturation-and VaccinationSeptember 1st 2007
ABSTRACT: The pre-middle school well child visit is now an important landmark on the vaccine schedule. The pre-kindergarten visit no longer has the distinction of being the last of the visits for "school shots." Pediatricians should emphasize this point at the 4- to 6-year-old well child visit so that parents are aware of the need for another series of vaccines in about 5 years.
Immunizing the College Student: REFERENCES:September 1st 2007
ABSTRACT: College is a time of new exposures, risk-taking, and adventure. Thus, protection with proper immunization is paramount. Pediatricians should offer the recommended vaccines whether required for college entry or not. When the young adult comes to the office to have the college health form completed and signed, seize the opportunity to tout the benefits of pre-college vaccination.
Elementary School: REFERENCES:September 1st 2007
ABSTRACT: Vaccination must be promoted before and on entry into elementary school. Not only does vaccination provide substantial health benefits to society, it is the law. The recommended childhood vaccination schedule changes on a yearly basis. Similarly, state vaccination requirements for school entry also may change yearly to accommodate these recommendations. Pediatricians need to remain abreast of the most recent vaccine information and to offer all vaccines at the appropriate well child visits. The goal is to limit the number or eliminate altogether the need for catch-up vaccines when the time comes for entry into elementary school.
ABSTRACT: Because almost one tenth of American children aged 2 to 11 years have untreated tooth decay, a physical examination that includes inspection of the mouth is crucial. Look for cavitated or noncavitated lesions, dental fillings, and missing teeth; gingivitis and/or plaque, chalky white spots, or deep fissures on the teeth suggest dental decay. Dental care strategies that can be discussed at well-child visits include the benefits of daily flossing and brushing with fluoridated toothpaste, limited intake of dietary sugar, the establishment of a dental home, and use of protective mouthguards and face protectors during sport activities. Fluoride supplementation can be prescribed for children exposed to inadequate amounts in the water supply. The Caries-Risk Assessment Tool can help identify children at high risk for tooth decay. The pediatrician can have a great impact on ensuring that children obtain necessary dental care; a literature review found that children referred to a dentist by a primary care provider were more likely to visit a dentist than those not referred.
Cerebral Palsy: A Multisystem ReviewJune 1st 2007
ABSTRACT: Most cases of cerebral palsy (CP) are the result of congenital, genetic, inflammatory, anoxic, traumatic, toxic, and metabolic disorders. A minority of cases result from asphyxia at birth. Nearly three-quarters of children with CP aged 7 years had a normal neurological evaluation at birth. Abnormal motor development usually provides the first diagnostic clue. Neuroimaging is recommended if the cause of CP has not been established with perinatal imaging. MRI is preferred to CT. Management of the multisystemic manifestations begins with a comprehensive medical evaluation by a multidisciplinary team that includes family members. Therapy is aimed at maximizing the patient's level of function. Key areas include ambulation, cognitive skills, activities of daily living, hygiene, and rehabilitation into society.
Case In Point: Aberrant Left Coronary ArteryApril 1st 2007
A 2-year-old girl was seen by her pediatrician because of a 3-day history of runny nose, cough, congestion, and low-grade fevers. A viral upper respiratory tract infection was diagnosed and supportive care was recommended. The child returned 2 days later with persistent cough, mild tachypnea, and an episode of vomiting. The cough and tachypnea prompted the pediatrician to order a chest film, which revealed an enlarged cardiac silhouette.
Case in Point: Ups and Downs of Trampoline UseDecember 1st 2006
A 14-year-old girl came to the office with severe hip pain, which occurred after she attempted a cheerleading maneuver on a trampoline. She reported that she was bouncing as high as she could and landed on the trampoline with her left knee flexed and her right hip extended. On impact, she felt a "pop" that was immediately followed by right hip pain. She could barely move after the landing but managed to get off of the trampoline; she has been walking with pain since her injury.
Odd Skull Shapes: Heads Up on Diagnosis and TherapyNovember 1st 2006
Head shape abnormalities in infants may be the result of pressure on the malleable bones in the newborn skull during a vaginal delivery (molding), of constant gravitational forces on the occiput when an infant is kept in the same supine position for prolonged periods (positional deformational plagiocephaly), or of premature fusing of one or more of the cranial sutures (craniosynostosis).
Pediatric Chest Pain: Keys to the DiagnosisAugust 1st 2006
Chest pain in children evokes anxiety in patients and their parents--and prompts frequent visits to the pediatrician's office, urgent care facility, or emergency department (ED). In a prospective study, Selbst and colleagues reported that chest pain accounted for 6 in 1000 visits to an urban pediatric ED.
Diaper Dermatitis: From "A" to "Pee"June 1st 2006
The "A" in the title stands for acrodermatitis enteropathica, an uncommon underlying cause of diaper dermatitis (DD). The "Pee," the colloquial term for urine, is probably the most common irritant (along with feces) that contributes to the breakdown of skin in the diaper area.
Fractures From Short Falls: Implications in Children Under Age 5May 1st 2006
Primary care and emergency physicians frequently see young children who have fractured a bone after a fall from a low height. The child's caregiver may describe a fall from furniture, play equipment, stairs, and various other structures--or the child may have even been dropped while being carried. The clinician then has to decide whether the explanation for the fall is plausible--or whether a child abuse investigation should be pursued.
Photoclinic: Congenital Aplasia of the Depressor Anguli Oris MuscleApril 1st 2006
The mother of this 2-month-old boy was concerned about her son's facial asymmetry that was apparent only when he was crying. The right angle of the infant's mouth dropped substantially below the left angle of the mouth when he cried; it also deviated to the right (A). The moment the child stopped crying, his mouth became symmetric again (B).
Case In Point: Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric StenosisFebruary 1st 2006
A 7-week-old white boy presented to the emergency department (ED) with vomiting and weight loss. His parents brought him to the ED 3 weeks earlier after he had vomited for several days. Possible milk protein allergy was diagnosed at that visit, and a change from cow milk formula to an elemental formula was recommended. Vomiting subsequently increased in frequency. Nonbilious but forceful vomiting occurred with each feeding. The patient lost nearly 2 lb during the 3 weeks that followed the first ED visit.
Psoriasis in an 11-Month-Old InfantFebruary 1st 2006
An otherwise healthy 11-month-old infant hadhad an intermittent, nonpruritic rash for mostof his life. The lesions recurred mainly onthe extremities and trunk without a particulartrigger. Applications of 1% hydrocortisonecream were only partially beneficial. The joints and nailswere not affected. The patient’s maternal grandfather hadsevere psoriasis.
Pediatrics Update: Avian Flu: Why All the Squawk?December 1st 2005
Pediatricians around the countryare being bombardedwith questions about avianflu. This brief review of thecurrent status of the avian fluoutbreak and its treatment and preventionprovides the informationyou will need to answer the mostpressing patient questions.
Cold Injuries: A Guide to Preventing--and Treating--Hypothermia and FrostbiteOctober 1st 2005
ABSTRACT: Hypothermia is not limited to the northern states: people also die of hypothermia in other areas with milder climates. Infants, young adolescent boys, and inadequately dressed teens who abuse alcohol or illicit drugs are at highest risk for death secondary to hypothermia. The mildly hypothermic patient may appear fatigued and display persistent shivering, ataxia, clumsiness, confusion, tachypnea, and tachycardia. The child with moderate hypothermia will not be shivering; declining mental status may cause the freezing patient to remove clothing. An irregular heartbeat is likely at this stage. Severe hypothermia is marked by apnea, stupor, and coma. In a frostbitten patient, rapid rewarming of the affected area in warm water for 15 to 30 minutes is the first step. Potent analgesia is often necessary. After thawing, the frostbitten part is kept dry, warm, and loosely covered. With an adequate dose of common sense, the vast majority of deaths from cold injury can be prevented.
Pneumonia: Update on Causes--and Treatment OptionsSeptember 1st 2005
Pneumonia is one of the most common conditions encountered by primary care providers. Certain organisms cause pneumonia in particular age groups. For example, group B streptococci, Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli in particular) and, rarely, Listeria monocytogenes cause pneumonia in neonates. In infants younger than 3 months, group B streptococci and organisms encountered by older children occasionally cause pneumonia, as does Chlamydia trachomatis. Older infants and preschoolers are at risk for infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. In children older than 5 years, S pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are the key pathogens. Let the patient's age, history, clinical presentation, and radiographic findings guide your choice of therapy. Even though most patients with uncomplicated pneumonia can be treated as outpatients, close follow-up is important. Hospitalize patients younger than 6 months and those with complications.
Asthma Update: Pearls You May Have MissedMay 1st 2005
ABSTRACT: Asthma is a very serious yet very controllable illness. In acute exacerbations, bronchospasm can be reversed with nebulized albuterol (2.5 to 5 mg); give 2 additional treatments at 20-minute intervals and then every hour for the first few hours until wheezing resolves. Subcutaneous terbutaline and epinephrine are alternatives. Systemic corticosteroids may be needed to manage the acute attack (eg, 2 mg/kg of oral prednisone or pred-nisolone). In addition, an anticholinergic agent (eg, inhaled ipratropium) may be used. IV magnesium (25 to 50 mg/kg) and heliox have shown promising results in acute asthma. Maintenance therapy is indicated when daily symptoms occur more than twice per week or when nighttime symptoms occur more than twice per month; such therapy may also be warranted for an infant with exacerbations that occur less than 6 weeks apart or more than 3 times per year, or when other risk factors are present. Inhaled corticosteroids are the cornerstone of maintenance therapy and are mandatory for all patients with persistent asthma. Alternative treatments for children younger than 5 years include cromolyn and an oral leukotriene modifier (montelukast). Patient and parent education helps ensure proper drug administration, monitoring, and compliance.
Case In Point: Clavicle Fractures in ChildrenAugust 1st 2004
Clavicle fractures in the pediatric population are very common. Clavicle fractures in the pediatric population are very common. Clinical manifestations include decreased movement of the arm on the affected side, crepitus, and/or bony irregularity at the fracture site. Here, a review of fracture in newborns and older children.